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Material consisting of hydrocarbons coming from the crust of the Earth. Created from the remains of dead plants over long periods of time. Largely responsible for the global warming crisis.

A hydrocarbon is a type of organic compound that is composed entirely of hydrogen and carbon atoms. In the fossil fuel industries, the term hydrocarbon is used to describe naturally occurring substances such as petroleum, natural gas, and coal, as well as their derivatives and purified forms. The combustion of hydrocarbons is the primary source of energy worldwide. Petroleum is the primary source of raw materials for the production of organic commodity chemicals like solvents and polymers. The majority of human-generated greenhouse gas emissions come from either the burning of fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide, or the handling of natural gas and agricultural activities, which release methane.

Energy from sources that replenish quicker than they are used. Examples include solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, and biomass.

Energy obtained from nuclear reactions, typically used in nuclear power plants to generate electricity. This process involves either splitting atomic nuclei (fission) or combining them (fusion), which releases a significant amount of energy. While it offers significant energy efficiency and low greenhouse gas emissions, it also poses challenges related to radioactive waste and safety issues.

A unit of measurement that quantifies the amount of thermal energy required to increase the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. It is utilized to determine the energy content of fuels and the effectiveness of heating and cooling systems. Approximately 1,055 joules are equivalent to one Btu.

A measurement of energy that is equal to the power of one kilogram watt (1 kW) being used for one hour. It is frequently utilized to gauge the amount of electrical energy consumed by households and businesses, serving as a foundation for electricity billing. A single kWh represents the energy consumed by operating a 1,000-watt device for one hour.

A unit of measurement known as a barrel of crude oil equivalent (BOE) is utilized to quantify energy that is equal to the energy produced from burning one barrel of crude oil. This metric is commonly employed in the energy industry to standardize various forms of energy into a single unit, making financial analysis and calculations more straightforward. Approximately 5,800 cubic feet of natural gas or 1.7 megawatt hours of electricity are equivalent to one BOE.

A digital twin is a virtual replica designed to precisely simulate a physical entity, operation or system. This advanced technology makes it easy to emulate, predict, improve and track functionality through data analysis and monitoring in real time.

The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a collection of physical devices, ordinary objects, or appliances that are equipped with sensors, software, and other technologies. These devices have the ability to connect and communicate with each other via the internet or other communication networks. Furthermore, they are capable of autonomously gathering and sharing data.

A power plant is an installation or a building used to generate electricity, which is then sent out.

A network (grid) is an extensive system of interconnected elements used to transmit or distribute various media, such as electricity, natural gas, crude oil, heat, water, and data. The network may consist of physical elements, such as pipes, cables, power lines, or virtual elements, as in the case of ICT networks.

The movement of electrical energy from one place to another.

Distribution is the last stage of the supply chain, including the delivery of energy raw materials, such as natural gas, crude oil, electricity and heat, to end users. It can be done using various systems, e.g. distribution networks, gas stations, retail outlets.

The way in which a governing body has decided to address the issues such as energy generation, usage, and distribution. Nordic countries heavily cooperate with each other in this field

The process of developing regulations or a rule or directive.

The process of getting rid of regulations.

A feed-in tariff is a policy mechanism created to encourage the development of renewable energy sources. Typically, this involves offering higher-than-market rates to small-scale energy producers, such as those utilizing solar or wind power, for the electricity they supply to the grid.

A billing system for electricity that enables individuals who produce their own electricity, either partially or entirely, to utilize it at any time rather than only when it is generated. This is especially significant for renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, which are non-dispatchable when not connected to storage.

The net capacity factor is a ratio that compares the actual electrical energy produced to the maximum possible output. This comparison is done during a specific time period.

The maximum power requirement within a grid during a designated time frame.

The minimum level of electricity demand on an electrical grid during a specific time period, such as one week, is referred to as the base load or baseload. This demand can be fulfilled by consistent power plants, dispatchable generation, or a combination of smaller intermittent energy sources, depending on the most optimal combination of cost, availability, and reliability in a given market. 

Refers to the adjustment in electricity usage by a customer of an electric utility in order to align the demand for power with its supply.

A more advanced iteration of the conventional century electrical grid is being developed, incorporating bidirectional communication and distributed intelligent devices. This integration of electricity and information flow has the potential to enhance the efficiency of the delivery network. The research primarily concentrates on three key components of a smart grid: the infrastructure system, the management system, and the protection system.

An electrical grid that operates within specific boundaries and functions as a unified and manageable unit. It has the capability to function both when connected to the main power grid and when operating independently. A 'stand-alone microgrid' or 'isolated microgrid' operates solely off-the-grid and cannot be linked to a larger electric power system.

The simultaneous production of electricity and useful heat through the utilization of a heat engine or power station.

The application of cogeneration technology is expanded to include the generation of cold. This process entails the simultaneous production of electricity, heat, and chilled water for air conditioning or refrigeration. By combining these processes, we are able to reduce fuel consumption compared to separate production methods.

Efficiency is how well an energy machine converts input into useful output. In the energy industry, it's the useful power output divided by the total power consumed.

The attempt to decrease inefficient energy usage by utilizing fewer energy services can be achieved through more efficient energy utilization (using less energy for uninterrupted service) or modifying one's behavior to consume less (such as reducing driving).

Minimum energy efficiency levels for appliances.

A set of rules that specify the standards for construction objects such as buildings and non-building structures. Usually they define the rules such as the minimum required energy efficiency.

A way of designing and constructing buildings that considers the impact on the environment and people. It aims to maximize the benefits and minimize the drawbacks of buildings on nature and human health. This approach is applied from the beginning to the end of a building's life cycle.

An examination of energy movement to promote energy preservation within a structure.

A way to pay for energy upgrades by using the money saved from lower costs. An external organization, called an ESCO, does a project to make buildings more energy efficient or use renewable energy. They get paid back from the money saved or the energy produced. The ESCO only gets paid if the project saves energy like it was supposed to. This helps make sure the project is successful and saves money in the long run.

A type of market-based tool that symbolizes the ownership of the non-power characteristics of renewable electricity generation, as well as its environmental and social attributes. These certificates are granted when one megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity is produced and transmitted to the power grid from a renewable energy source.

A metric that quantifies the volume of carbon dioxide emissions that are produced by the actions of a specific person, group, or community and released into the atmosphere.

The process of extracting carbon from the air and storing it in a way that prevents it from resurfacing. Ways to keep it include storing it as a gas in deep underground rock formations or turning it into a solid by mixing it with metal oxides. Before deciding if a certain rock formation is suitable for storing carbon dioxide, it's important to consider how much it can hold, how well it can contain the gas, and how easily it can be injected. Geo-sequestration involves putting carbon dioxide underground in a special form. Oil fields, gas fields, certain rock formations, and coal seams have all been suggested as places to store carbon dioxide.

Carbon storage. You may store carbon in a gaseous or a solid form.

Also known as "cap and trade," is a way to reduce pollution and protect human health and the environment. It works by setting a limit on pollution and issuing tradable allowances equal to that limit. These allowances allow holders to emit a specific amount of pollutants, like one ton. This system ensures that environmental goals are met while giving flexibility to individual sources to meet their emissions targets. Allowances can be bought and sold in a market, making these programs "market-based" approaches to reducing pollution.

Another term for emissions trading.

A marketing strategy that involves creating a false image of a company or product as environmentally friendly. This is intended to mislead consumers into purchasing a product that does not actually have a positive impact on the environment.

Refers to the condition of the economy that guarantees the accessibility of energy in a dependable, cost-effective, and environmentally-friendly manner. This encompasses ensuring the suitable amount and caliber of different energy sources, diversifying supplies, and building resilience against disruptions in the energy system.

Refers to the theoretical moment when worldwide oil production reaches its highest point and subsequently experiences an irreversible decline.

Deposits of crude oil and natural gas, the extraction of which requires the use of specialized technologies due to their unusual properties and the way they are deposited. This group includes, among others: oil shale, tar sands oil and shale gas.

Deposits of hydrocarbons found in shales, a fine-grained sedimentary rock. Extraction of these resources uses techniques such as hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling, which significantly increases energy production by accessing deposits once considered unattainable.

Also known as fracking, is a technology used to extract natural gas and oil from low-permeability rocks such as oil shale. It involves injecting a mixture of water, sand and chemicals into a well under high pressure, which causes rocks to crack and release gas and oil.

Natural gas that has been cooled to a temperature of approximately -162°C to reduce its volume by 600 times. This enables easier transportation and storage of natural gas over long distances.

A group of hydrocarbons that are extracted from natural gas in the process of its liquefaction. NGLs include, among others: propane, butane, pentane and hexane. NGLs are used as fuels, chemical raw materials and in the production of plastics.

A result of condensation; in another words a liquid that used to be a gas.

Derived from the processing of natural gas and refining of petroleum, it is frequently utilized as a source of energy in both residential and industrial settings, as well as in low-emission public transportation.

Plays an important role in many industries and everyday life. It is used as a gaseous fuel for heating houses and buildings, and also as a component of propellant gas mixtures in aerosols. Butane is also used to produce plastics and rubber.

The basic building block of many other chemical compounds, playing a key role in the chemical industry. It is used for the production of, among others, ethylene, which is one of the most important raw materials for the production of plastics. Ethane can also be used as a gaseous fuel.

A blend of liquid hydrocarbons that is naturally found in the Earth's crust. It is a clear or slightly yellow liquid with a distinct smell. The process of refining crude oil results in the production of gasoline, diesel oil, liquefied petroleum gas, asphalt, and various other products.

A liquid mixture of hydrocarbons used as fuel to power diesel engines in vehicles such as trucks, buses, agricultural and construction machinery. It is obtained in the process of distillation of crude oil.

A liquid mixture of hydrocarbons used as a fuel to power internal combustion engines in vehicles such as cars, motorcycles and machinery. It is obtained in the process of distillation of crude oil.

A type of high-quality kerosene used to power turbine engines in airplanes. It is specially cleaned and has specific physicochemical properties to ensure safe and efficient operation of engines.

A heavy liquid fuel produced from crude oil, used to heat buildings, generate electricity and power certain industries.

A type of heavy heating oil used to power ship engines. It is a thick, sticky liquid with a high content of sulfur and other impurities.

An industrial plant where crude oil is processed into various products such as gasoline, diesel fuel, natural gas liquids, asphalt, and petrochemicals.

A branch of the chemical industry that processes petroleum and natural gas to produce a variety of products such as plastics, fertilizers, detergents, synthetic rubbers, and pharmaceuticals.

A system of pipes used to transport fluids (e.g. crude oil, natural gas, water) or mixtures over long distances.

Enables effective transportation of natural gas over long distances. It is an alternative to gas transport by sea, rail or road, offering greater efficiency and lower costs.

A system of pipes used to transport crude oil from a production site to a refinery or storage site. Oil pipelines can be constructed on land or under the sea.

Eminent domain is an instrument of public authority that allows the expropriation of private properties for public purposes, such as the construction of infrastructure or schools.

An independent government agency whose purpose is to ensure a fair and transparent civil service recruitment process. The PSC is responsible for conducting competitive examinations, evaluating candidates and recommending them for suitable positions.

An intergovernmental organization of 31 countries that are committed to supporting sustainable energy policy. The IEA's aim is to ensure security of energy supply, promote energy efficiency and develop clean energy technologies.

An intergovernmental organization that brings together 13 countries that are the main exporters of crude oil. The goal of OPEC is to coordinate the oil policies of its members in order to stabilize oil prices on world markets.

An industry association that brings together approximately 600 companies operating in the oil and gas sector in the United States. It promotes the interests of its members, develops technical standards and conducts scientific research on the safety and efficiency of the extraction, transport and processing of crude oil and natural gas.

An association of private electric utilities in the United States. It represents their interests in the federal and state arena, promotes the development of clean energy technologies and provides energy safety and efficiency education.

An influential nonprofit organization that has been championing the environment for over 50 years. It focuses on fighting pollution, combating climate change and protecting endangered species. NRDC uses scientific research, legal action and public education to promote sustainable development and protect the planet for future generations.

An independent agency of the United States federal government whose mission is to protect human health and the environment. It does this by creating and enforcing regulations relating to air, water, soil and waste pollution.

A key US government agency that shapes national energy policy. This includes oversight of energy research and development, production and security of nuclear materials, and the promotion of energy efficiency.

A unit of power, equal to 1,000 watts. It is used to measure the power of electrical devices, internal combustion engines and other energy sources.

Represents a measure of power, equivalent to one million watts or 10^6 watts, often used to measure the energy efficiency of electric power facilities or consumption rates of large structures.

An SI unit of power, equal to one billion watts or 10^9 watts, usually used to measure the energy production capacity of large power plants or the level of energy consumption in major urban areas.

An SI measure of power, equivalent to one trillion watts or 10^12 watts, typically used to indicate the efficiency of significant energy facilities or the total energy consumption of countries.

In the SI system, volt (V) measures electric potential, voltage, and electromotive force by determining the difference in electric potential at two points. It corresponds to the potential difference needed to flow one ampere of current through one ohm of resistance.

An ampere (A), often abbreviated to ampere, is the standard unit of electric current in the International System of Units (SI), representing the flow of one coulomb of charge per second through a conductor.

Hertz (Hz) is a unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI), defined as one cycle per second, used to measure the frequencies of vibrations and waves such as sound waves and electromagnetic waves.

Direct current (DC) is a type of electric current that flows in one constant direction, as opposed to alternating current (AC), which changes direction periodically. Direct current is widely used in batteries, electronics and solar panels to provide a constant supply of electricity.

An electrical current that changes direction periodically, as opposed to the constant flow of direct current (DC). It is the standard form of electricity for residential and commercial establishments, preferred for its ability to efficiently vary voltage levels and its effectiveness in minimizing energy loss over long distances.

An electrical device that regulates the voltage of alternating current (alternating current), either boosting or reducing it to suit various power distribution and transmission requirements, all while maintaining the frequency of the current.

Serves as a critical node in the power grid, regulating voltage levels using transformers for the efficient transmission and distribution of electricity. This feature is essential for modifying the electrical voltage to suit different stages of the power delivery process, allowing electricity to be reliably delivered to various consumers.

A device that measures and records the amount of a specific substance or phenomenon, e.g. electricity, water, gas or distance, providing the necessary data to monitor consumption or efficiency.

An electronic device that records your electricity, water or gas consumption at hourly or less intervals and transmits this information at least daily to your utility company for monitoring and billing.

An integrated structure that connects smart meters, communication channels and data processing systems, enabling interactive communication between service providers and consumers. This infrastructure enables instantaneous tracking of energy consumption, improves billing accuracy, and helps in the efficient distribution of energy resources.

A strategy to regulate and reduce consumers' energy consumption during periods of peak demand, using methods such as energy efficiency and load shifting. DSM aims to optimize energy use, reduce energy costs and increase the reliability of the power grid.

Involves generating electricity close to where it is consumed, using smaller, localized energy sources such as solar panels, wind farms and mini-hydro plants, as opposed to traditional large-scale power generation. This approach increases energy efficiency and minimizes losses occurring during energy transmission.

A system that simultaneously produces electricity and useful heat, uses the thermal by-product of electricity generation, which leads to greater efficiency in the use of energy resources. It integrates the production of useful heat and energy, maximizing energy production from a single fuel source and improving energy conservation.

Also known as combined heat and power (CHP), is an efficient energy process that simultaneously generates electricity and usable thermal energy (heat) from a single fuel source. This method significantly increases energy efficiency by capturing and using heat that would typically be waste from electricity generation.

The Waste Heat to Power (WHP) process uses excess heat from industrial activities or machinery, which is usually disposed of and unused, and converts it into electricity. This method increases energy conservation and reduces waste in industrial settings.

Involves transforming non-recyclable waste into valuable energy forms like electricity, heat, or fuel using techniques such as burning, gasification, pyrolysis, or capturing gas from decomposing waste. This approach not only minimizes landfill dependency but also generates energy, aiding in sustainable waste management and energy production.

Organic material originating from plants and animals, used as an energy source. During combustion, the chemical energy contained in the biomass is released in the form of heat, which can be used to generate electricity or generate heat directly.

A mixture of methane and carbon dioxide produced by the decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen, is becoming a versatile source of energy. It is obtained from various organic raw materials, such as plant residues, sewage and food waste, suitable for the production of electricity, heating and fueling vehicles.

The widespread methane and carbon dioxide gasses produced when organic waste decomposes in landfills. They can be used to generate renewable energy, providing a means of producing electricity or heat.

A microbial process that decomposes organic substances without the presence of oxygen. This results in the production of biogas, which can be utilized for generating power and heat, as well as a nitrogen-rich byproduct after fermentation.

Produced from sources such as vegetable oil, animal fat or used cooking fat, biodiesel provides an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional diesel, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and reducing reliance on fossil energy sources.

Refers to the sun's light and heat, which can be captured by various methods such as photovoltaic systems, solar thermal units, and solar heating to produce electricity or heating.

A material that converts sunlight into electricity using light-responsive materials, using the photovoltaic effect. This method of producing clean energy is widely used, from domestic installations to large solar power plants.

Captures and converts heat from the sun into usable energy, often used to heat water or air in residential and industrial buildings. This method involves collecting solar radiation to generate heat, which can then be directly used or converted into electricity.

A technology that uses mirrors or lenses to focus a large area of sunlight onto a small area to produce heat, which is then used to produce electricity. Unlike photovoltaic solar power, CSP uses the sun's heat to power steam turbines or engines.

Harnesses the kinetic force of the wind, converting it into electrical energy using turbines. As a clean and renewable form of energy, it plays a significant role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and is widely used on both land and sea.

Involves the use of turbines placed on land to harness wind energy to produce electricity. These land-based turbines convert the kinetic force of the wind into electricity, which is efficiently used in regions with sufficient wind flow.

Harnesses wind energy via turbines placed in water, usually in the ocean, to produce electricity. Located away from the coast, these turbines take advantage of stronger and more stable offshore winds, resulting in greater energy production compared to land-based turbines.

A machine designed to convert wind movement into electrical energy. They consist of rotors placed on tall structures that capture wind energy to turn on a generator, which then produces electricity. This system is an integral part of wind energy utilization, providing a sustainable and renewable option for electricity generation.

Or hydroelectric power, is the production of electricity using the energy of flowing water, usually from rivers or dams. Water flows through the turbines, turning them into electricity in a process that converts kinetic energy into electricity.

A massive construction erected across rivers to retain water in a reservoir. The water stored is discharged through turbines, which generate electricity as it flows downstream. This method of energy generation is among the most commonly utilized renewable energy sources, offering substantial capacity for electricity production and advantages in water management.

An energy storage method that uses two reservoirs at different heights to store and generate electricity. During periods of lower energy demand, electricity is used to pump water from the lower to the upper reservoir. When energy demand is high, water is discharged back into the lower reservoir via turbines, generating electricity.

Utilizes the natural flow of rivers for hydroelectric power generation, harnessing energy without essentially changing the course or water levels through large dams. This method channels water through a turbine to generate electricity, then returns it downstream, minimizing ecological impact and maintaining ecosystem balance.

Comes from the Earth’s inherent heat in the core. With access to underground steam or hot water reservoirs, this form of energy can be converted into electricity or used for direct heating. Consistent availability makes geothermal energy an efficient and environmentally friendly option for electricity generation and heating. 

Taps into the Earth's internal heat, using it to produce electricity. By extracting steam or hot water from below the Earth's surface, the plant transforms this geothermal resource into electricity via turbines. This renewable energy source is known for its low emissions and ability to provide consistent, baseline-load power.

Describes the use of renewable marine resources, including wave, tidal and ocean thermal energy. It involves converting the dynamic forces of the ocean and thermal differences into electricity, which is an important source of clean energy that is particularly profitable for coastal areas.

A form of sustainable energy that harnesses the renewable energy generated by the natural rise and fall of ocean tides. Through the utilization of specialized systems, the kinetic energy produced by the tides is converted into electrical energy. Due to the predictable and consistent nature of tidal patterns, this energy source provides a dependable and substantial contribution to sustainable energy resources.

Refers to renewable energy that comes from the movement of sea waves. Various devices and systems are used to convert the kinetic and potential energy of waves into electricity or other useful forms. As an abundant and environmentally friendly resource, wave energy offers significant potential, especially for coastal areas, increasing energy diversity and helping reduce carbon emissions.

Utilizes the thermal disparity between the ocean's warmer surface and its colder depths to produce renewable energy. By leveraging this natural temperature gradient, OTEC drives a heat engine to create electricity. This method provides a continuous and eco-friendly power supply, especially valuable for tropical islands where the variance in water temperature is the greatest.